Eyes Wide Shut is a erotic mystery psychological drama film directed, produced and co-written by Stanley Kubrick. The film follows the sexually charged adventures of Dr. Bill Harford, who is shocked when his wife, Alice, reveals that she had contemplated having an affair a year earlier. He embarks on a night-long adventure, during which he infiltrates a massive masked orgy of an unnamed secret society. Kubrick obtained the filming rights for Dream Story in the s, considering it a perfect text for a film adaptation about sexual relations.
The novella explains why the husband's mask is on the pillow next to his sleeping wife, she having Sex wild eyes it when it slipped out of his suitcase, and placing it there as a statement of understanding. Trailers and Videos. The fact that it was in public made it oh so much hotter. Because this cross yielded all white-eyed males Sex wild eyes all wyes females, Morgan could indeed conclude that the white-eye trait followed a sex-linked pattern of inheritance. A New York City doctor embarks on a Carmen electra free nude pic, night-long odyssey of sexual and moral discovery after his wife reveals a painful secret to him.
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Eyes Wide Shut is a erotic mystery psychological drama film directed, produced and co-written by Stanley Kubrick. The film follows the sexually charged adventures of Dr. Bill Harford, who is shocked when his wife, Alice, reveals that she had contemplated having an affair a year earlier.
He embarks on a night-long adventure, during which he infiltrates a massive masked orgy of an unnamed secret society. Kubrick obtained the filming rights for Dream Story in the s, considering it a perfect text for a film adaptation about sexual relations.
He revived the project in the s when he hired writer Frederic Raphael to help him with the adaptation. The film's production, at days, holds the Guinness World Record for the longest continuous film shoot. Kubrick died six days after showing his final cut to Warner Bros. Pictures , making this the final film he directed.
This version was released on July 16, to moderately positive reactions from film critics. They attend a Christmas party hosted by wealthy patient, Victor Ziegler, where Bill is reunited with Nick Nightingale, a medical school drop-out who now plays piano professionally. An older Hungarian guest attempts to seduce Alice, and two young models attempt to seduce Bill. He is interrupted by his host who had been having sex with Mandy, a young woman who has overdosed on a speedball.
Mandy recovers with Bill's aid. The following evening, while smoking marijuana , Alice and Bill discuss their episodes of unfulfilled temptation. Bill tells Alice he is not jealous of other men's attraction to her because he deems women naturally inclined to fidelity.
She then discloses that during their vacation in Cape Cod , she encountered a naval officer and fantasized about him enough to consider leaving Bill and their daughter, Helena. Bill is disturbed by Alice's revelation before being called to the house of a patient who has just died. The patient's distraught daughter unsuccessfully tries to seduce Bill.
Upon leaving, he engages a prostitute named Domino. Alice phones when they start kissing, prompting Bill to have a change of heart. He pays Domino for the sexless encounter and meets Nick at a jazz club. Nick describes an engagement where he must play piano blindfolded in events featuring beautiful women.
Invitees require a costume, a mask and a password. Bill goes to a costume shop and offers the owner, Milich, a generous amount of money to rent a costume. Inside the shop, Milich is outraged when he catches his teenage daughter with two men. Bill takes a taxi to the country mansion mentioned by Nick.
He gives the password and discovers a sexual ritual is taking place. One of the masked women warns him he is in terrible danger. Bill is ushered to a crowded room and unmasked by the master of ceremonies. The woman who had tried to warn Bill intervenes and insists on redeeming him, at an undisclosed personal cost.
Bill is let off with a warning not to tell anyone about what happened. Bill arrives home guilty and confused. He finds Alice laughing in her sleep and awakens her. She tearfully explains a dream in which she was having sex with the naval officer and many other men, and laughing at the idea of Bill witnessing the scene.
The next morning Bill goes to Nick's hotel. The desk clerk explains that a bruised and frightened Nick checked out hours earlier escorted by two dangerous-looking men. Bill returns the costume but seems to have misplaced the mask, and learns Milich is now procuring his daughter to the same men he performed citizen's arrest on the previous night.
Bill reads the news about a beauty queen's death from an overdose, goes to the morgue and identifies her as Mandy. He is then summoned by Ziegler, who reveals he was a guest in the orgy and identified Bill through his connection with Nick.
Ziegler claims the secret society's warnings are only intended to scare Bill from speaking about the orgy. However, he implies the society is capable of acting on their threats. Bill asks about Nick's disappearance and Mandy's death, correctly identifying her as the masked orgy participant who sacrificed herself for him.
Ziegler insists that Nick is safely back home in Seattle , and the punishment was part of the same charade of intimidation and had nothing to do with Mandy's death.
He also says Mandy was a hooker and addict who had died from another accidental drug overdose. Bill does not know whether Ziegler is telling the truth about Nick's whereabouts or Mandy's death. Upon returning home, Bill finds the rented mask on his pillow next to his sleeping wife. He breaks down in tears and tells Alice the whole truth of the past two days. The next morning, they go Christmas shopping with Helena, who wanders near two older men who had been first seen at Ziegler's party.
Unconcerned with their child, Bill apologizes to Alice, and Alice muses that they should be grateful that their marriage and mutual love survived. Kubrick was interested in adapting the story, and with the help of journalist Jay Cocks , bought the filming rights to the novel. Arthur Schnitzler's novella Dream Story is set around Vienna after the turn of the century. The main characters are a couple named Fridolin and Albertina.
The couple's home is a typical suburban middle-class home. Kubrick frequently removed references to the Jewishness of characters in the novels he adapted. Kubrick determined Bill should be a " Harrison Ford -ish goy " and created the surname of Harford as an allusion to the actor.
In the novella, the taunters are members of an anti-Semitic college fraternity. The novella is set during the Carnival , when people often wear masks to parties. The party that both husband and wife attend at the opening of the story is a Carnival Masquerade ball , whereas the film's story begins at Christmas time. In the novella, when his wife discloses a private sexual fantasy, he in turn admits one of his own of a girl in her mid to late teens , while in the film he is simply shocked.
The film's argument over whether he has fantasies over female patients and whether women have sexual fantasies is simply absent from the novella, where both husband and wife assume the other has fantasies. In the film, Bill's estrangement from Alice revolves around her confessing a recent fantasy to him; in the novella, both exchange fantasies, after which she declares that in her youth she could have easily married someone else, which is what precipitates their sense of estrangement.
In the novella, the husband long suspected that his patient Marion was infatuated with him, while in the film it is a complete surprise and he seems shocked. Fridolin is socially bolder but less sexual with the prostitute Mizzi in the novella, Domino in the film. Fridolin is also conscious of looking old in the novella, though he hardly does in the film.
In the novella, the party which is sparsely attended uses "Denmark" as the password for entrance; that is significant in that Albertina had her infatuation with her soldier in Denmark.
The film's password is "Fidelio", from the Latin word for "faithful", and which is the title of Beethoven 's only opera Fidelio, or Married Love. In early drafts of the screenplay, the password was "Fidelio Rainbow". Jonathan Rosenbaum noted that both passwords echo elements of one member of the couple's behaviour, though in opposite ways.
This aspect was retained in the film's original screenplay,  but was deleted in the filmed version. In the novella, when the husband returns home, the wife's dream is an elaborate drama that concludes with him getting crucified in a village square after Fridolin refuses to separate from Albertina and become the paramour of the village princess, even though Albertina is now occupied with copulating with other men, and watches him "without pity".
By being faithful, Fridolin thus fails to save himself from execution in Albertina's dream, although he was apparently spared by the woman's "sacrifice" at the masked sex party. In both the novella and film, the wife states that the laugh in her sleep just before she woke was a laugh of scornful contempt for her husband; although awake, she states this matter-of-factly.
The adaptation created a character with no counterpart in the novella: Ziegler, who represents both the high wealth and prestige to which Bill Harford aspires, and a connection between Bill's two worlds his regular life, and the secret society organizing the ball.
Strangelove represents the worst of the American national security establishment, Charles Grady represents the worst of Jack Torrance in The Shining , and Clare Quilty represents the worst of Humbert Humbert in Lolita. Ziegler's presence allows Kubrick to change the mechanics of the story in a few ways.
Similarly, the dead woman whom Bill suspects of being the woman at the party who saved him is a baroness that he was acquainted with earlier, not a hooker at Ziegler's party. Whether this is to be believed or not, it is an exposition of Ziegler's view of the ways of the world as a member of the power elite. The novella explains why the husband's mask is on the pillow next to his sleeping wife, she having discovered it when it slipped out of his suitcase, and placing it there as a statement of understanding.
This is left unexplained in the film and left to the viewer's interpretation. When Warner Bros. After that meeting, the director awarded them the roles. Due to scheduling conflicts, both had to drop out  — first Keitel with Finding Graceland ,  then Leigh with eXistenZ  — and they were replaced by Sydney Pollack and Marie Richardson in the final cut.
In it was revealed that Cate Blanchett had provided the voice of the mysterious masked woman at the orgy party. Principal photography began in November The shoot went much longer than expected; Vinessa Shaw was initially contracted for two weeks but ended up working two months,  while Alan Cumming , who appears in one scene, auditioned six times before the filming process. Given Kubrick's fear of flying , the entire film was shot in England.
Kubrick's perfectionism went as far as sending workmen to Manhattan to measure street widths and note newspaper vending machine locations. Production was followed by a strong campaign of secrecy, helped by Kubrick always working with a short team on set. When possible, Smith made use of available light sources visible in the shots, such as lamps and Christmas tree lights. The color was enhanced by push processing the film reels, which helped bring out the intensity of the color.
Kubrick's perfectionism led him to oversee every visual element that would appear in a given frame, from props and furniture to the color of walls and other objects. Costume designer Marit Allen explained that Kubrick felt they fit in that scene for being part of the imaginary world, and ended up "creat[ing] the impression of menace, but without exaggeration".
Many masks as used in the Venetian carnival were sent to London, and Kubrick separated who would wear each piece. After shooting completed, Kubrick entered a prolonged post-production process. The director died six days later. Jocelyn Pook wrote the original music for Eyes Wide Shut , but like other Kubrick movies, the film was noted for its use of classical music. Pook was hired after choreographer Yolande Snaith rehearsed the masked ball orgy scene using Pook's composition "Backwards Priests" — which features a Romanian Orthodox Divine Liturgy recorded in a church in Baia Mare , played backwards — as a reference track.
Kubrick then called the composer and asked if she had anything else "weird" like that song, which was reworked for the final cut of the scene, with the title "Masked Ball".
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Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Discovery of Sex Linkage | Learn Science at Scitable
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. One day in , American geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan peered through a hand lens at a male fruit fly, and he noticed it didn't look right. Instead of having the normally brilliant red eyes of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster , this fly had white eyes.
Morgan was particularly interested in how traits were inherited and distributed in developing organisms, and he wondered what caused this fly's eyes to deviate from the norm. Little did Morgan know that, with this white-eyed fly, he was about to confirm the chromosome theory.
In doing so, Morgan would also be the first person to definitively link the inheritance of a specific trait with a particular chromosome. This faded black and white photograph shows the Fly Room at Columbia University with bunches of bananas featured prominently.
All rights reserved. Morgan's early days of scientific training had taught him that, in order to find an answer, he must design an experiment that asked the right question. Thus, he first performed a test cross between the white-eyed male fly and several purebred, red-eyed females to see whether white eyes might also occur in the next generation.
The members of the resulting F 1 generation had all red eyes, but Morgan suspected that the white-eye trait was still present yet unexpressed in this hybrid generation, like a recessive trait would be. To test this idea, Morgan then crossed males and females from the F 1 generation to probe for a pattern of white eye reoccurrence. Upon doing so, he observed a ratio of red eyes to white eyes in the F 2 generation. This result is very similar to those reported for breeding experiments for recessive traits, as first shown by Mendel.
Strangely, however, all of Morgan's white-eyed F 2 flies were male, just like their grandfather—there were no white-eyed females at all!
Correlation of a nonsexual trait with male or female identity had never been observed before. Why, Morgan puzzled, would this particular trait be limited to only males? Morgan's data, however, looked very different. His original paper suggested that these white-eyed males were evidence of "further sporting. Morgan was curious as to why female flies never had white eyes, and he considered several possible reasons for this phenomenon.
One potential explanation was that white-eyed females never hatched, or that they died early in development. In other words, this hypothesis predicted that white eyes were lethal in female flies—therefore, among the progeny of a test cross of heterozygous F 1 red-eyed females to white-eyed males, there should be no white-eyed females.
Surprisingly, this cross yielded a ratio of red-eyed females to white-eyed females to red-eyed males to white-eyed males. So, why would white eyes show a bias toward males in the original F 1 x F 1 cross? Morgan knew of recent work by Nettie Stevens and E. He further recognized that the inheritance of the sex determination chromosomes in Drosophila seemed to follow closely with the inheritance of the white-eye phenotype.
But what was the exact relationship between eye color and sex? In order to understand Morgan's experiments aimed at answering this question, it is first helpful to review the pattern of sex chromosome inheritance in fruit flies.
Geneticists refer to the state of the male genotype with only one X chromosome as hemizygous. This cross yielded only red-eyed offspring, as summarized in Table 3. This cross is depicted in Table 4. As shown in the table, the offspring of this cross exhibited a ratio of red eyes to white eyes, which indicated that white eyes were recessive.
Next, as previously discussed, Morgan conducted a third cross to determine whether white eyes were lethal in female flies. This third cross revealed that white eyes were in fact not lethal in females, because it produced a ratio of red-eyed females to white-eyed females to red-eyed males to white-eyed males.
Finally, Morgan opted to conduct a fourth cross to determine whether the white-eye trait followed the inheritance of the X chromosome from maternal gametes to male offspring. Specifically, because the white-eyed trait appeared to be recessive, Morgan could predict that a white-eyed female would probably be homozygous recessive.
Thus, Morgan could predict that all male offspring resulting from a cross between a white-eyed female and a red-eyed male would be white eyed. Likewise, because female offspring inherit the only X chromosome that exists in the paternal gametes, all female offspring of this particular cross would carry the red-eye trait, and this trait would mask the recessive white-eye trait they inherited via the maternal gametes.
To test these predictions, Morgan crossed a white-eyed female with a red-eyed male, as depicted in Table 6. Because this cross yielded all white-eyed males and all red-eyed females, Morgan could indeed conclude that the white-eye trait followed a sex-linked pattern of inheritance.
Morgan's conclusion—that the white-eye trait followed patterns of sex chromosome inheritance—was at once very specific and very grand. A few years prior to these test crosses, Mendelian ideas of inheritance had been enthusiastically discussed by many researchers in the context of new findings about chromosomes.
Indeed, after observing meiotic reductive divisions and correlating them to chromosome counts in male and female offspring, cytologists Walter Sutton, Nettie Stevens, and E. Wilson had all promoted the idea that sex was determined via chromosome-based inheritance. Morgan, however, had long resisted the idea that genes resided on chromosomes, because he did not approve of scientific data acquired by passive observation.
Morgan was sure that Wilson and the other researchers who promoted the chromosome theory of inheritance were looking for an easy answer as to how independent assortment occurred in gamete formation, because he believed they ignored counterevidence in the face of excited conviction. In fact, he thought that the concept of genes was at best an invention intended to link the mysterious paths of chromosomes and discontinuous inheritance patterns. Interestingly, within a year of this public criticism of chromosome theory, Morgan set out to test the idea of inherited chromosomal factors using Drosophila.
Because Morgan was particularly interested in experiments designed to test hypotheses, he turned to the fly system to maximize data acquisition over short periods of time. Soon after launching these experiments, Morgan saw his white-eyed fly peering back at him through his hand lens. Then, many crosses later, Morgan became convinced by his own empirical evidence that traits could in fact be passed on in the same manner predicted by the inheritance of sex chromosomes.
Morgan never looked back, and he developed a huge following of accomplished students over the next few decades. Indeed, for his work with Drosophila , Morgan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Benson, K. Morgan 's resistance to the chromosome theory. Nature Reviews Genetics 2 , — doi Morgan, T. What are "factors" in Mendelian explanations? American Breeders Association Reports 5 , — link to article. Sex-limited inheritance in Drosophila. Science 32 , — link to article.
Chromosome Theory and the Castle and Morgan Debate. Discovery and Types of Genetic Linkage. Genetics and Statistical Analysis. Thomas Hunt Morgan and Sex Linkage. Developing the Chromosome Theory. Genetic Recombination. Gregor Mendel and the Principles of Inheritance. Mitosis, Meiosis, and Inheritance. Multifactorial Inheritance and Genetic Disease.
Non-nuclear Genes and Their Inheritance. Polygenic Inheritance and Gene Mapping. Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination. Sex Determination in Honeybees. Test Crosses. Biological Complexity and Integrative Levels of Organization. Genetics of Dog Breeding. Human Evolutionary Tree. Mendelian Ratios and Lethal Genes. Environmental Influences on Gene Expression. Epistasis: Gene Interaction and Phenotype Effects. Genetic Dominance: Genotype-Phenotype Relationships.
Phenotype Variability: Penetrance and Expressivity. Can paying attention establish a new field? Learn about Thomas Hunt Morgan, the first person to definitively link trait inheritance to a specific chromosome and his white-eyed flies. Aa Aa Aa. Morgan Detects an Unusual Pattern of Inheritance. All possible combinations of white eyes and sex are possible. The white-eye trait can be carried over to females when F 1 females are crossed with white-eyed males. Principles of Sex Determination.
Morgan's Test Crosses. The Context of Morgan's Discovery. American Breeders Association Reports 5 , — link to article ———. Article History Close. Keywords Keywords for this Article. Flag Inappropriate The Content is: Objectionable. Email your Friend. This content is currently under construction. Explore This Subject.