Review of: Gold Wolf

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Maximum Bet. Fur color varies individually, seasonally and geographically, though the typical coloration is yellowish to silvery grey, with slightly reddish limbs and black speckling on the tail and shoulders.

The throat, abdomen and facial markings are usually white, and the eyes are amber-colored. Females bear two to four pairs of teats.

Aristotle wrote of wolves living in Egypt, mentioning that they were smaller than the Greek kind. Georg Ebers wrote of the wolf being among the sacred animals of Egypt, describing it as a "smaller variety" of wolf to those of Europe, and noting how the name Lykopolis , the Ancient Egyptian city dedicated to Anubis , means "city of the wolf".

The binomial name he chose for it was derived from the Arcadian Anthus family described by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History , whose members would draw lots to become werewolves.

The two survivors were noted to never play with each other and had completely contrasting temperaments; one inherited the golden jackal's shyness, while the other was affectionate toward its human captors.

George Jackson Mivart emphasized the differences between the African golden wolf and the golden jackal in his writings:. Certainly the differences of coloration which exist between these forms are not nearly so great as those which are to be found to occur between the different local varieties of C.

We are nevertheless inclined The reason why we prefer to keep them provisionally distinct is that though the difference between the two forms African and Indian is slight as regards coloration, yet it appears to be a very constant one.

Out of seventeen skins of the Indian form, we have only found one which is wanting in the main characteristic as to difference of hue.

The ears also are relatively shorter than in the North-African form. But there is another character to which we attach greater weight. However much the different races of Wolves differ in size, we have not succeeded in finding any constant distinctive characters in the form of the skull or the proportions of the lobes of any of the teeth.

So far as we have been able to observe, such differences do exist between the Indian and North-African Jackals.

The canids present in Egypt in particular were noted to be so much more gray wolf-like than populations elsewhere in Africa that Hemprich and Ehrenberg gave them the binomial name Canis lupaster in Likewise, Thomas Henry Huxley , upon noting the similarities between the skulls of lupaster and Indian wolves , classed the animal as a subspecies of the gray wolf.

However, the animal was subsequently synonymised with the golden jackal by Ernst Schwarz in The taxonomy of the Jackals in the Near East is still a matter of dispute.

On the basis of skeletal material, however, it can be stated that the Wolf Jackal is specifically distinct from the much smaller Golden Jackal.

In , zoologist Walter Ferguson argued in favor of lupaster being a subspecies of the gray wolf based on cranial measurements, stating that the classing of the animal as a jackal was based solely on the animal's small size, and predated the discovery of C.

Domestic dog. Holarctic gray wolf. Indian plains wolf. Himalayan wolf. African golden wolf northwestern Africa. African golden wolf eastern Africa.

Golden jackal. Ethiopian wolf. African wild dog. Side-striped jackal. Black-backed jackal. Further doubts over its being conspecific with the golden jackal of Eurasia arose in December , when a canid was sighted in Eritrea 's Danakil Desert whose appearance did not correspond to that of the golden jackal or the six other recognized species of the area, but strongly resembled that of the gray wolf.

The area had previously been largely unexplored because of its harsh climate and embroilment in the Eritrean War of Independence and subsequent Eritrean—Ethiopian War , though local Afar tribesmen knew of the animal, and referred to it as wucharia wolf.

The animal's wolf-like qualities were confirmed in , when several golden "jackal" populations in Egypt and the Horn of Africa classed as Canis aureus lupaster [19] were found to have mtDNA sequences more closely resembling those found in gray wolves than those of golden jackals.

Furthermore, the sampled African specimens displayed much more nucleotide and haplotype diversity than that present in Indian and Himalayan wolves, thus indicating a larger ancestral population, and an effective extant population of around 80, females.

Both these studies proposed reclassifying Canis aureus lupaster as a subspecies of the gray wolf. In , a more thorough comparative study of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes on a larger sample of wolf-like African canids from northern, eastern and western Africa showed that they were in fact all distinct from the golden jackal, with a genetic divergence of around 6.

The phylogenetic tree below is based on nuclear sequences: [7]. It was estimated that the African golden wolf diverged from the wolf—coyote clade 1.

Considering its phylogenetic position and the canid fossil record , it is likely that the African golden wolf evolved from larger ancestors that became progressively more jackal-like in size upon populating Africa on account of interspecific competition with both larger and smaller indigenous carnivores.

Traces of African golden wolf DNA were identified in golden jackals in Israel , which adjoins Egypt, thus indicating the presence of a hybrid zone.

In , it was proposed by scientists at the Oslo and Helsinki Universities that the binomial name C. This ambiguity, coupled with the disappearance of the holotype's remains, led to the scientists proposing giving priority to Hemprich and Ehrenberg 's name C.

In , whole genome sequencing was used to compare members of the genus Canis. The study supports the African golden wolf being distinct from the golden jackal, and with the Ethiopian wolf being genetically basal to both.

Two genetically distinct African golden wolf populations exist in northwestern and eastern Africa. This suggests that Ethiopian wolves — or a close and extinct relative — once had a much larger range within Africa to admix with other canids.

There is evidence of gene flow between the eastern population and the Ethiopian wolf, which has led to the eastern population being distinct from the northwestern population.

There is evidence of gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, and gray wolves. One African golden wolf from the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula showed high admixture with the Middle Eastern gray wolves and dogs, highlighting the role of the land bridge between the African and other continents in canid evolution.

African golden wolves form a sister clade to Middle Eastern gray wolves based on mitochondrial DNA, but to coyotes and gray wolves based on nuclear DNA.

Between and , two mtDNA studies found that the Himalayan wolf and Indian wolf were closer to the African golden wolf than they were to the Holarctic gray wolf.

The Himalayan wolf shares a maternal lineage with the African golden wolf, and possesses a unique paternal lineage that falls between the gray wolf and the African golden wolf.

Although in the past several attempts have been made to synonymise many of the proposed names, the taxonomic position of West African wolves, in particular, is too confused to come to any precise conclusion, as the collected study materials are few.

Prior to , six of the 10 supposed West African subspecies were named or classed almost entirely because of their fur color. The species' display of high individual variation, coupled with the scarcity of samples and the lack of physical barriers on the continent preventing gene flow , brings into question the validity of some of the West African forms.

The African golden wolf's social organisation is extremely flexible, varying according to the availability and distribution of food. The basic social unit is a breeding pair, followed by its current offspring, or offspring from previous litters staying as "helpers".

Family relationships among African golden wolves are comparatively peaceful in relation to those of the black-backed jackal ; although the sexual and territorial behavior of grown pups is suppressed by the breeding pair, they are not actively driven off once they attain adulthood.

African golden wolves also lie together and groom each other much more frequently than black-backed jackals.

Both partners and helpers will react aggressively towards intruders, though the greatest aggression is reserved for intruders of the same sex; pair members do not assist each other in repelling intruders of the opposite sex.

The African golden wolf's courtship rituals are remarkably long, during which the breeding pair remains almost constantly together.

Prior to mating, the pair patrols and scent marks its territory. Copulation is preceded by the female holding her tail out and angled in such a way that her genitalia are exposed.

The two approach each other, whimpering, lifting their tails and bristling their fur, displaying varying intensities of offensive and defensive behavior.

The female sniffs and licks the male's genitals, whilst the male nuzzles the female's fur. They may circle each other and fight briefly. The copulatory tie lasts roughly four minutes.

Towards the end of estrus, the pair drifts apart, with the female often approaching the male in a comparatively more submissive manner.

In anticipation of the role he will take in raising pups, the male regurgitates or surrenders any food he has to the female. In the Serengeti, pups are born in December—January, and begin eating solid food after a month.

Weaning starts at the age of two months, and ends at four months. At this stage, the pups are semi-independent, venturing up to 50 meters from the den, even sleeping in the open.

Their playing behavior becomes increasingly more aggressive, with the pups competing for rank, which is established after six months.

The female feeds the pups more frequently than the male or helpers do, though the presence of the latter allows the breeding pair to leave the den and hunt without leaving the litter unprotected.

The African golden wolf's life centers around a home burrow, which usually consists of an abandoned and modified aardvark or warthog earth. The interior structure of this burrow is poorly understood, though it is thought to consist of a single central chamber with 2—3 escape routes.

The home burrow can be located in both secluded areas or surprisingly near the dens of other predators. African golden wolves frequently groom one another, particularly during courtship, during which it can last up to 30 minutes.

Nibbling of the face and neck is observed during greeting ceremonies. When fighting, the African golden wolf slams its opponents with its hips, and bites and shakes the shoulder.

The species' postures are typically canine, and it has more facial mobility than the black-backed and side-striped jackals, being able to expose its canine teeth like a dog.

The vocabulary of the African golden wolf is similar to that of the domestic dog, with seven sounds having been recorded.

These howls are used to repel intruders and attract family members. Howling in chorus is thought to reinforce family bonds, as well as establish territorial status.

The African golden wolf rarely catches hares, due to their speed. Gazelle mothers often working in groups of two or three are formidable when defending their young against single wolves, which are much more successful in hunting gazelle fawns when working in pairs.

A pair of wolves will methodically search for concealed gazelle fawns within herds, tall grass, bushes and other likely hiding places.

Although it is known to kill animals up to three times its own weight, the African golden wolf targets mammalian prey much less frequently than the black-backed jackal overall.

Small prey is typically killed by shaking, though snakes may be eaten alive from the tail end. The African golden wolf often carries away more food than it can consume, and caches the surplus, which is generally recovered within 24 hours.

During the dry seasons, it excavates dung balls to reach the larvae inside. Grasshoppers and flying termites are caught either in mid-air or by pouncing on them while they are on the ground.

It is fiercely intolerant of other scavengers, having been known to dominate vultures on kills — one can hold dozens of vultures at bay by threatening, snapping and lunging at them.

Fossil finds dating back to the Pleistocene indicate that the species' range was not always restricted to Africa, with remains having been found in the Levant and Saudi Arabia.

In the latter area, it occurs mostly in the short-grass plains, the floor of the Ngorongoro Crater , and the plains between the Olmoti and Empakai Craters, being relatively rare in Serengeti National Park , Loliondo and the Maswa game reserve.

The species also inhabits the Lake Natron area and West Kilimanjaro. It is sometimes found in the northern part of Arusha National Park , and as far south as Manyara.

In areas where it is common, such as the short-grass plains of Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Crater, population densities can range between 0.

The African golden wolf inhabits a number of different habitats; in Algeria it lives in Mediterranean , coastal and hilly areas including hedged farmlands, scrublands, pinewoods and oak forests , while populations in Senegal inhabit tropical , semi-arid climate zones including Sahelian savannahs.

Wolf populations in Mali have been documented in arid Sahelian massifs. At Lake Nasser , it lives close to the lakeshore.

In West Africa , the African golden wolf mostly confines itself to small prey, such as hares , rats , ground squirrels and cane rats.

Other prey items include lizards, snakes, and ground-nesting birds, such as francolins and bustards. It also consumes a large amount of insects, including dung beetles , larvae , termites and grasshoppers.

It will also kill young gazelles , duikers and warthogs. The African golden wolf generally manages to avoid competing with black-backed and side-striped jackals by occupying a different habitat grassland, as opposed to the closed and open woodlands favored by the latter two species and being more active during the daytime.

Although African golden wolves are inefficient rodent hunters and thus not in direct competition with Ethiopian wolves, it is likely that heavy human persecution prevents the former from attaining numbers large enough to completely displace the latter.

African golden wolves will feed alongside spotted hyenas , though they will be chased if they approach too closely. Spotted hyenas will sometimes follow wolves during the gazelle fawning season, as wolves are effective at tracking and catching young animals.

Hyenas do not take to eating wolf flesh readily; four hyenas were reported to take half an hour in eating one. Overall, the two animals typically ignore each other when no food or young is at stake.

African golden wolves in the Serengeti are known to carry the canine parvovirus , canine herpesvirus , canine coronavirus and canine adenovirus.

The wolf was the template of numerous Ancient Egyptian deities , including Anubis , Wepwawet and Duamutef. Its heart is believed to protect the bearer from wild animal attacks, while its eye can protect against the evil eye.

Although considered haram in Islamic dietary laws, the wolf is important in Moroccan folk medicine. The wolf's gall bladder was said to have various uses, including curing sexual impotence and serving as a charm for women wishing to divorce their husbands.

Westermarck noted, however, that the wolf was also associated with more nefarious qualities: it was said that a child who eats wolf flesh before reaching puberty will be forever cursed with misfortune and that scribes and saintly persons refrain from consuming it even in areas where it is socially acceptable, as doing so would render their charms useless.

It plays a role in Berber mythology , particularly that of the Ait Seghrouchen of Morocco, where it plays a similar role in folktales as the red fox does in Medieval European fables, though it is often the victim of the more cunning hedgehog.

The African golden wolf plays a prominent role in the Serer religion 's creation myth , where it is viewed as the first living creature created by Roog , the Supreme God and Creator.

The wolf was the first intelligent creature on Earth, and it is believed that it will remain on Earth after human beings have returned to the divine.

The Serers believe that, not only does it know in advance who will die, but it traces the tracks in advance of those who will go to funerals.

The movements of the wolf are carefully observed, because the animal is viewed as a seer who came from the transcendence and maintains links with it.

Although believed to be rejected in the bush by other animals and deprived of its original intelligence, it is still respected because it dared to resist the supreme being who still keeps it alive.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the other African wolf, see Ethiopian wolf. Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene — Recent 0.

Conservation status. Hemprich and Ehrenberg , [1]. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Tome 2.

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