Phil trans-Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A - Wikipedia

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Royal Society Publishing. Inthere were 28 staff. Subscribe to RSS. Subscribe by email. The print run of the journal was copies. The Sectional Committees were intended to reduce the burden on the Phil trans and Council.

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TS Marissa S. He then gained military rank, and throughout his career promoted extending this to a survey triangulation of the whole of Britain. In —, 43, copies of Transactions were sold, of which casual purchasers accounted for only copies. Phil trans society's council minutes dated 1 March in the Julian Massachusettes sex offenders ; equivalent to 11 March in the modern Gregorian system ordered that "the Philosophical Transactions, to be composed by Mr Oldenburg, be printed the first Monday of every month, if he have sufficient matter for it, and that that tract be licensed by the Council of this Society, being first revised by some Members of the same". TS Kendra Sinclaire. A paper The Cosmological Constant [27] was actually Hawking's seventh in Phil trans Royal Society journal, but his first in Philosophical Transactions all the others appeared in Proceedings. Yet, in the Society took over the Philosophical Transactions. By the early s, institutional subscription Phil trans the main channel of income from publication sales for the society. Scientific journal published by the Royal Society. TS Kate King of Prussia. Visiting king of Prussia October 16th - 20th. Views Read Edit View history. In Phil trans projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies Wikisource. For other uses, see Transactions of the Royal Society disambiguation. By the mid-nineteenth century, the procedure of getting a paper published Phil trans the Transactions still relied on the reading of papers by a Fellow.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
  • Trans Philadelphia.
  • We serve quality creative dishes made from fresh seafood, and prime steaks and meats that highlight the flavors of Europe.
  • The editor-in-chief is John Pickett Cardiff University.

Jump to navigation. Meineke, Barnabas H. Daru, T. Jonathan Davies and Charles C. Global change has become a central focus of modern biology. Yet, our knowledge of how anthropogenic drivers affect biodiversity and natural resources is limited by a lack of biological data spanning the Anthropocene. We propose that the hundreds of millions of plant, fungal and animal specimens deposited in natural history museums have the potential to transform the field of global change biology.

We suggest that museum specimens are underused, particularly in ecological studies, given their capacity to reveal patterns that are not observable from other data sources. Increasingly, museum specimens are becoming mobilized online, providing unparalleled access to physiological, ecological and evolutionary data spanning decades and sometimes centuries. Here, we describe the diversity of collections data archived in museums and provide an overview of the diverse uses and applications of these data as discussed in the accompanying collection of papers within this theme issue.

As these unparalleled resources are under threat owing to budget cuts and other institutional pressures, we aim to shed light on the unique discoveries that are possible in museums and, thus, the singular value of natural history collections in a period of rapid change.

Abstract from the introductory article: Global change has become a central focus of modern biology.

Journal homepage Online access Online archives. Philosophical Transactions. The position of editor was sometimes held jointly and included William Musgrave Nos to and Robert Plot Nos to TS Marissa S. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society was established in by the Royal Society and is the oldest scientific journal in the English-speaking world. In it, she communicates her finding that the ultraviolet components of the electromagnetic spectrum could magnetize a steel needle. But the members could, if they desired, consult the original paper in full.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society. In its earliest days, it was a private venture of the Royal Society's secretary. In the journal expanded and divided into two separate publications, one serving the physical sciences Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences and the other focusing on the life sciences Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

Both journals now publish themed issues and issues resulting from papers presented at the Discussion Meetings of the Royal Society. The first issue, published in London on 6 March , [5] was edited and published by the Society's first secretary, Henry Oldenburg , four-and-a-half years after the Royal Society was founded. The society's council minutes dated 1 March in the Julian calendar ; equivalent to 11 March in the modern Gregorian system ordered that "the Philosophical Transactions, to be composed by Mr Oldenburg, be printed the first Monday of every month, if he have sufficient matter for it, and that that tract be licensed by the Council of this Society, being first revised by some Members of the same".

Oldenburg published the journal at his own personal expense and seems to have entered into an agreement with the society's council allowing him to keep any resulting profits. He was to be disappointed, however, since the journal performed poorly from a financial point of view during his lifetime, just about covering the rent on his house in Piccadilly. The beginnings of these ideas can be traced in a series of letters from Oldenburg to Robert Boyle : [8].

The printed journal replaced much of Oldenburg's letter-writing to correspondents, at least on scientific matters, and as such can be seen as a labour-saving device.

Oldenburg also described his journal as "one of these philosophical commonplace books", indicating his intention to produce a collective notebook between scientists. The eminent person in question was Pierre de Fermat , although the issue failed to mention his last theorem.

Oldenburg referred to himself as the "compiler" and sometimes "Author" of the Transactions , and always claimed that the journal was entirely his sole enterprise — although with the Society's imprimatur and containing reports on experiments carried out and initially communicated by of many of its Fellows, many readers saw the journal as an official organ of the Society. The Society also enjoyed the benefits of ambiguity: it was able to communicate advances in natural philosophy, undertaken largely in its own name, without the worry that it was directly responsible for its content.

In the aftermath of the Interregnum , the potential for censorship was very real. By reporting ongoing and often unfinished scientific work that may otherwise have not been reported, the journal had a central function of being a scientific news service. At the time of Philosophical Transactions ' foundation, print was heavily regulated, and there was no such thing as a free press.

In fact, the first English newspaper, The London Gazette which was an official organ of government and therefore seen as sanitized , did not appear until after Philosophical Transactions in the same year. Oldenburg's compulsive letter writing to foreign correspondents led to him being suspected of being a spy for the Dutch and interned in the Tower of London in A rival took the opportunity to publish a pirate issue of Philosophical Transactions , with the pretense of it being Issue Oldenburg repudiated the issue by publishing the real 27 upon his release.

Upon Oldenburg's death, following a brief hiatus, the position of Editor was passed down through successive secretaries of the Society as an unofficial responsibility and at their own expense. Robert Hooke changed the name of the journal to Philosophical Collections in — a name that remained until , when it changed back. The position of editor was sometimes held jointly and included William Musgrave Nos to and Robert Plot Nos to These editor-secretaries carried the financial burden of publishing the Philosophical Transactions.

Hill published three works in two years, ridiculing the Royal Society and the Philosophical Transactions. The Society was quick to point out that it was not officially responsible for the journal. Yet, in the Society took over the Philosophical Transactions. The journal would henceforth be published "for the sole use and benefit of this Society"; it would be financially carried by the members' subscriptions; and it would be edited by the Committee of Papers.

After the takeover of the journal by the Royal Society, management decisions including negotiating with printers and booksellers, were still the task of one of the Secretaries—but editorial control was exercised through the Committee of Papers. But the members could, if they desired, consult the original paper in full.

It would feature the author's name, the name of the Fellow who had communicated the paper to the Society, and the date on which it was read. The Royal Society covered paper, engraving and printing costs. During the Presidency of Joseph Banks the work of the Committee of Papers continued fairly efficiently, with the President himself in frequent attendance.

There was a number of ways in which the President and Secretaries could bypass or subvert the Royal Society's publishing procedures. Papers could be prevented from reaching the Committee by not allowing them to be read in the first place. Also—though papers were rarely subjected to formal review—there is evidence of editorial intervention, with Banks himself or a trusted deputy proposing cuts or emendations to particular contributions.

Publishing in the Philosophical Transactions carried a high degree of prestige and Banks himself attributed an attempt to unseat him, relatively early in his Presidency, to the envy of authors whose papers had been rejected from the journal.

Transactions continued steadily through the turn of the century and into the s. In the late s and early s, a movement to reform the Royal Society rose. The reformers felt that the scientific character of the Society had been undermined by the admission of too many gentleman dilettantes under Banks. Sectional Committees, each with responsibility for a particular group of disciplines, were initially set up in the s to adjudicate the award of George IV's Royal Medals.

But individual members of these committees were soon put to work reporting on and evaluating papers submitted to the Royal Society. These evaluations began to be used as the basis of recommendations to the Committee of Papers, who would then rubber-stamp decisions made by the Sectional Committees.

Despite its flaws — it was inconsistent in its application and not free of abuses — this system remained at the heart of the Society's procedures for publishing until , when the Sectional Committees were dissolved.

During the s, the cost of the Transactions to the Society was increasing again and would keep doing so for the rest of the century ; illustrations were always the largest outgoing. Illustrations had been a natural and essential aspect of the scientific periodical since the later seventeenth century. Engravings cut into metal plates were used for detailed illustrations, particularly where realism was required; while wood-cuts and, from the early nineteenth century, wood-engravings were used for diagrams, as they could be easily combined with letterpress.

By the mids, the Philosophical Transactions was seen as a drain on the Society's finances and the treasurer, Edward Sabine , urged the Committee of Papers to restrict the length and number of papers published in the journal.

The print run of the journal was copies. Around of these went to the fellowship, in return for their membership dues, and since authors now received up to off-prints for free, to circulate through their personal networks, the demand for the Transactions through the book trade must have been limited.

It was not until Stokes's Presidency ended, in , that his influence over the journal diminished. By the mid-nineteenth century, the procedure of getting a paper published in the Transactions still relied on the reading of papers by a Fellow. Many papers were sent immediately for printing in abstract form in Proceedings of the Royal Society. But those which were being considered for printing in full in Transactions were usually sent to two referees for comment before the final decision was made by the Committee of Papers.

During Stokes's time, authors were given the opportunity to discuss their paper at length with him before, during and after its official submission to the Committee of Papers. In , the Transactions split into series "A" and "B", dealing with the physical and biological sciences respectively. In , the model of collective responsibility for the editing of the Transactions was emphasized by the re-establishment of the Sectional Committees. The six sectional committees covered mathematics , botany , zoology , physiology , geology, and together chemistry and physics , and were composed of Fellows of the Society with relevant expertise.

The Sectional Committees took on the task of managing the refereeing process after papers had been read before the Society. Referees were usually Fellows, except in a small number of cases where the topic was beyond the knowledge of the fellowship or at least, of those willing to referee. The Sectional Committees communicated referee reports to authors; and sent reports to the Committee of Papers for final sanction.

The Sectional Committees were intended to reduce the burden on the Secretaries and Council. Consequently, the Secretary in the s, Arthur Rucker , no longer coordinated the refereeing of papers, nor did he generally correspond extensively with authors about their papers as Stokes had done. However, he continued to be the first port of call for authors submitting papers.

Authors were increasingly expected to submit manuscripts in a standardized format and style. From , they were encouraged to submit typed papers on foolscap-folio-sized paper to lighten the work of getting papers ready for printing, and to reduce the chance of error in the process. A publishable paper now had to present its information in an appropriate manner, as well as being of remarkable scientific interest. The committees could require authors to reduce the number of illustrations or tables or, indeed, the overall length of the paper, as a condition of acceptance.

It was only after the Second World War that the Society's concerns about the cost of its journals were finally allayed.

There had been a one-off surplus in , but it was only from that the Transactions began regularly to end the year in surplus. Part of the post-war financial success of the Transactions was due to the rising subscriptions received, and a growing number of subscriptions from British and international institutions, including universities, industry, and government; this was at the same time as private subscriptions, outside of fellows, were non-existent.

By the early s, institutional subscription was the main channel of income from publication sales for the society. In —, 43, copies of Transactions were sold, of which casual purchasers accounted for only copies. This did not happen until In there were about eleven staff in the Publishing Section; by , the number had risen to twenty-two. The editorial processes were also transformed. Completely passable and known for giving her clients the attention they deserve.

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Phil Trans A | Publishing blog | Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society This page covers issues of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society published in the years — There were volumes published in this period.

Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read Edit View history. Display Options. In other languages Add links. This page was last edited on 18 August , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. General Index from the first to the end of the seventieth volume — , external scan. Alphabetical Index from 71 to — external scan. Volume 1 — external scan. Volume 60 external scan.

Volume external scan. Volume 2 — external scan. Volume 61 external scan. Volume 3 external scan. Volume 62 external scan , external scan. Volume 4 external scan. Volume 63 external scan. Volume 5 external scan. Volume 64 external scan. Volume part II external scan. Volume 6 external scan. Volume 65 external scan. Volume 7 external scan. Volume 66 external scan.

Volume external scan external scan. Volume 8 Volume 67 external scan. Volume Volume 9 external scan. Volume 68 external scan. Volume 10 external scan. Volume 69 external scan , 32,1 MB external scan. Volume 11 external scan. Volume 70 external scan , 32 MB external scan. Volume external scan , external scan. Volume 12 — external scan.

Volume 71 external scan , external scan , 33 MB external scan. Volume 13 external scan. Volume 72 external scan , 27,3 MB external scan. Volume 14 external scan. Volume 73 30,0 MB external scan. Volume 15 external scan. Volume 74 external scan , 29,6 MB external scan.

Volume 16 — external scan. Volume 75 external scan , 29,1 MB external scan. Volume 17 external scan. Volume 76 external scan , 28,9 MB external scan. Volume 18 external scan. Volume 77 22,1 MB external scan.

Volume 19 — external scan. Volume 78 external scan. Volume 20 external scan. Volume 79 external scan. Volume 21 external scan. Volume 80 external scan. Volume 22 — external scan. Volume 81 external scan , external scan. Volume 23 — external scan. Volume 82 external scan. Volume 24 — external scan , external scan. Volume 83 external scan. Volume 25 — external scan. Volume 84 external scan. Volume 26 — external scan. Volume 85 external scan. Volume 27 — external scan. Volume 86 external scan.

Volume transcription project , external scan , external scan. Volume 28 — external scan. Volume 87 external scan. Volume 29 — external scan. Volume 88 external scan. Volume 30 — external scan. Volume 89 external scan. Volume 31 — external scan , external scan. Volume 90 external scan. Volume 32 — external scan , external scan. Volume 91 external scan , external scan , external scan. Volume 33 — external scan , external scan.

Volume 92 external scan. Volume 34 — external scan. Volume 93 external scan , external scan. Volume 35 — external scan. Volume 94 external scan , external scan. Volume 36 — external scan. Volume 95 transcription project , external scan , external scan. Volume 37 — external scan. Volume 96 transcription project , external scan , external scan. Volume 38 — external scan. Volume 97 external scan.

Volume 39 —36 external scan. Volume 98 external scan. Volume 40 —38 external scan transcription project. Volume 99 external scan. Volume 41 — external scan external scan. Volume 42 — external scan.

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